1. Member States shall ensure that, when applying the resolution tools and exercising the resolution powers, resolution authorities take all appropriate measures to ensure that the resolution action is taken in accordance with the following principles:
(a) the shareholders of the institution under resolution bear first losses;
(b) creditors of the institution under resolution bear losses after the shareholders in accordance with the order of priority of their claims under normal insolvency proceedings, save as expressly provided otherwise in this Directive;
(c) management body and senior management of the institution under resolution are replaced, except in those cases when the retention of the management body and senior management, in whole or in part, as appropriate to the circumstances, is considered to be necessary for the achievement of the resolution objectives;
(d) management body and senior management of the institution under resolution shall provide all necessary assistance for the achievement of the resolution objectives;
(e) natural and legal persons are made liable, subject to Member State law, under civil or criminal law for their responsibility for the failure of the institution;
(f) except where otherwise provided in this Directive, creditors of the same class are treated in an equitable manner;
(h) covered deposits are fully protected; and
(i) resolution action is taken in accordance with the safeguards in this Directive.
2. Where an institution is a group entity resolution authorities shall, without prejudice to Article 31, apply resolution tools and exercise resolution powers in a way that minimises the impact on other group entities and on the group as a whole and minimises the adverse effects on financial stability in the Union and its Member States, in particular, in the countries where the group operates.
4. Where the sale of business tool, the bridge institution tool or the asset separation tool is applied to an institution or entity referred to in point (b), (c) or (d) of Article 1(1), that institution or entity shall be considered to be the subject of bankruptcy proceedings or analogous insolvency proceedings for the purposes of Article 5(1) of Council Directive 2001/23/EC (1).
5. When applying the resolution tools and exercising the resolution powers, resolution authorities shall inform and consult employee representatives where appropriate.
6. Resolution authorities shall apply resolution tools and exercise resolution powers without prejudice to provisions on the representation of employees in management bodies as provided for in national law or practice.