1. In the cases referred to in Articles 18a to 24, as well as in other cases of higher risk that are identified by Member States or obliged entities, Member States shall require obliged entities to apply enhanced customer due diligence measures to manage and mitigate those risks appropriately 1.
Enhanced customer due diligence measures need not be invoked automatically with respect to branches or majority-owned subsidiaries of obliged entities established in the Union which are located in high-risk third countries, where those branches or majority-owned subsidiaries fully comply with the group-wide policies and procedures in accordance with Article 45. Member States shall ensure that those cases are handled by obliged entities by using a risk-based approach.
2. Member States shall require obliged entities to examine, as far as reasonably possible, the background and purpose of all transactions that fulfil at least one of the following conditions:
(i) they are complex transactions;
(ii) they are unusually large transactions;
(iii) they are conducted in an unusual pattern;
(iv) they do not have an apparent economic or lawful purpose.
In particular, obliged entities shall increase the degree and nature of monitoring of the business relationship, in order to determine whether those transactions or activities appear suspicious.
3. When assessing the risks of money laundering and terrorist financing, Member States and obliged entities shall take into account at least the factors of potentially higher-risk situations set out in Annex III.
4. By 26 June 2017, the ESAs shall issue guidelines addressed to competent authorities and the credit institutions and financial institutions, in accordance with Article 16 of Regulations (EU) No 1093/2010, (EU) No 1094/2010, and (EU) No 1095/2010 on the risk factors to be taken into consideration and the measures to be taken in situations where enhanced customer due diligence measures are appropriate. Specific account shall be taken of the nature and size of the business, and, where appropriate and proportionate, specific measures shall be laid down.
1 Directive (EU) 2018/843 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2018, (OJ L 156, 19.6.2018, p. 43)