Article 86

Capital Requirements Directive (CRD) > TITLE VII > CHAPTER 2 > Section II > Sub-Section 2 > Article 86
Article 86
Liquidity risk
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1.    Competent authorities shall ensure that institutions have robust strategies, policies, processes and systems for the identification, measurement, management and monitoring of liquidity risk over an appropriate set of time horizons, including intra-day, so as to ensure that institutions maintain adequate levels of liquidity buffers. Those strategies, policies, processes and systems shall be tailored to business lines, currencies, branches and legal entities and shall include adequate allocation mechanisms of liquidity costs, benefits and risks.

2.    The strategies, policies, processes and systems referred to in paragraph 1 shall be proportionate to the complexity,  risk  profile, scope of operation of the institutions and risk tolerance set by the management body and reflect the institution's importance in each Member State in which it carries out business. Institutions shall communicate risk tolerance to all relevant business lines.

3.    Competent authorities shall ensure that institutions, taking into account the nature, scale and complexity of their activities, have liquidity risk profiles that are consistent with and, not in excess of, those required for a well-functioning and robust system.

Competent authorities shall monitor developments in  relation  to liquidity risk profiles, for example product design and volumes, risk management, funding policies and funding concentrations.

Competent authorities shall take effective action where developments referred to in the second subparagraph may lead to individual institution or systemic instability.

Competent authorities shall inform EBA about any actions carried out pursuant to the third subparagraph.

EBA shall make recommendations where appropriate  in  accordance with Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010.

4.    Competent authorities shall ensure that institutions develop methodologies for the identification, measurement, management and monitoring of funding positions.  Those  methodologies  shall  include the current and projected material cash-flows in and arising from assets, liabilities, off-balance-sheet items, including contingent liabilities and the possible impact of reputational risk.

5.    Competent authorities shall ensure that institutions distinguish between pledged and unencumbered assets that are available at  all times, in particular during emergency situations. They shall also ensure that institutions take into account the legal entity  in  which assets reside, the country where assets are legally recorded either in a register or in an account and  their eligibility and shall monitor how assets can be mobilised in a timely manner.

6.    Competent authorities shall ensure that institutions also have regard to existing legal, regulatory and operational limitations to potential transfers of liquidity and unencumbered assets amongst entities, both within and outside the European Economic Area.

7.    Competent authorities shall ensure that institutions consider different liquidity risk mitigation tools,  including  a  system  of  limits and liquidity buffers in order to be able to withstand a range of different stress events and an adequately diversified funding structure and access to funding sources. Those arrangements shall be reviewed regularly.

8.    Competent authorities shall ensure that institutions consider alter­ native scenarios on liquidity positions and on risk mitigants and review the assumptions underlying decisions concerning the funding position at least annually. For those purposes, alternative scenarios shall address, in particular, off-balance sheet items and other contingent liabilities, including those of Securitisation Special Purpose Entities  (SSPE)  or other special purpose entities,  as  referred  to  in  Regulation  (EU) No 575/2013, in relation to which the institution acts as sponsor or provides material liquidity support.

9.    Competent authorities shall ensure that institutions consider the potential impact of institution-specific, market-wide and combined alter­ native scenarios. Different time periods and varying degrees of stress conditions shall be considered.

10.    Competent authorities shall ensure that institutions adjust their strategies, internal policies and limits on liquidity risk and develop effective contingency plans, taking into account the outcome of the alternative scenarios referred to in paragraph 8.

11.    Competent authorities shall ensure that institutions have in place liquidity recovery plans setting out adequate strategies and proper im­ plementation measures in order to address possible liquidity shortfalls, including in relation to branches established in another Member State. Competent authorities shall ensure that those plans are tested by the institutions at least annually, updated on the basis of the outcome of the alternative scenarios set out in paragraph 8, reported to and approved by senior management, so that internal policies and processes can be adjusted accordingly. Institutions shall take the necessary operational steps in advance to ensure that liquidity recovery plans can be im­ plemented immediately. For credit institutions, such operational steps shall include holding collateral immediately available for central bank funding. This includes holding collateral where necessary in the currency of another Member State, or the currency of a third country to which the credit institution has exposures, and where operationally necessary within the territory of a host Member State or of a  third country to whose currency it is exposed.