1. Member States shall ensure that, in order to take a resolution action, resolution authorities are able to exercise control over the institution under resolution, so as to:
(a) operate and conduct the activities and services of the institution under resolution with all the powers of its shareholders and management body; and
(b) manage and dispose of the assets and property of the institution under resolution.
The control referred to in the first subparagraph may be exercised directly by the resolution authority or indirectly by a person or persons appointed by the resolution authority. Member States shall ensure that voting rights conferred by shares or other instruments of ownership of the institution under resolution cannot be exercised during the period of resolution.
2. Subject to Article 85(1), Member States shall ensure that resolution authorities are able to take a resolution action through executive order in accordance with national administrative competences and procedures, without exercising control over the institution under resolution.
3. Resolution authorities shall decide in each particular case whether it is appropriate to carry out the resolution action through the means specified in paragraph 1 or in paragraph 2, having regard to the resolution objectives and the general principles governing resolution, the specific circumstances of the institution under resolution in question and the need to facilitate the effective resolution of cross-border groups.
4. Resolution authorities shall not be deemed to be shadow directors or de facto directors under national law.