1. Each Member State shall designate one or, exceptionally, more resolution authorities that are empowered to apply the resolution tools and exercise the resolution powers.
2. The resolution authority shall be a public administrative authority or authorities entrusted with public administrative powers.
3. Resolution authorities may be national central banks, competent ministries or other public administrative authorities or authorities entrusted with public administrative powers. Member States may exceptionally provide for the resolution authority to be the competent authorities for supervision for the purposes of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 and Directive 2013/36/EU. Adequate structural arrangements shall be in place to ensure operational independence and avoid conflicts of interest between the functions of supervision pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 and Directive 2013/36/EU or the other functions of the relevant authority and the functions of resolution authorities pursuant to this Directive, without prejudice to the exchange of information and cooperation obligations as required by paragraph 4. In particular, Member States shall ensure that, within the competent authorities, national central banks, competent ministries or other authorities there is operational independence between the resolution function and the supervisory or other functions of the relevant authority.
The staff involved in carrying out the functions of the resolution authority pursuant to this Directive shall be structurally separated from, and subject to, separate reporting lines from the staff involved in carrying out the tasks pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 and Directive 2013/36/EU or with regard to the other functions of the relevant authority.
For the purposes of this paragraph, the Member States or the resolution authority shall adopt and make public any necessary relevant internal rules including rules regarding professional secrecy and information exchanges between the different functional areas.
4. Member States shall require that authorities exercising supervision and resolution functions and persons exercising those functions on their behalf cooperate closely in the preparation, planning and application of resolution decisions, both where the resolution authority and the competent authority are separate entities and where the functions are carried out in the same entity.
5. Each Member State shall designate a single ministry which is responsible for exercising the functions of the competent ministry under this Directive.
6. Where the resolution authority in a Member State is not the competent ministry it shall inform the competent ministry of the decisions pursuant to this Directive and, unless otherwise laid down in national law, have its approval before implementing decisions that have a direct fiscal impact or systemic implications.
7. Decisions taken by competent authorities, resolution authorities and EBA in accordance with this Directive shall take into account the potential impact of the decision in all the Member States where the institution or the group operate and minimise the negative effects on financial stability and negative economic and social effects in those Member States. Decisions of EBA are subject to Article 38 of Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010.
8. Member States shall ensure that each resolution authority has the expertise, resources and operational capacity to apply resolution actions, and is able to exercise their powers with the speed and flexibility that are necessary to achieve the resolution objectives.
9. EBA, in cooperation with competent authorities and resolution authorities, shall develop the required expertise, resources and operational capacity and shall monitor the implementation of paragraph 8, including through periodical peer reviews.
10. Where, in accordance with paragraph 1, a Member State designates more than one authority to apply the resolution tools and exercise the resolution powers, it shall provide a fully reasoned notification to EBA and the Commission for doing so and shall allocate functions and responsibilities clearly between those authorities, ensure adequate coordination between them and designate a single authority as a contact authority for the purposes of cooperation and coordination with the relevant authorities of other Member States.
11. Member States shall inform EBA of the national authority or authorities designated as resolution authorities and the contact authority and, where relevant, their specific functions and responsibilities. EBA shall publish the list of those resolution authorities and contact authorities.
12. Without prejudice to Article 85, Member States may limit the liability of the resolution authority, the competent authority and their respective staff in accordance with national law for acts and omissions in the course of discharging their functions under this Directive.