1. For the purposes of point (m) of Article 36(1), exposure shall include any of the following items, provided they are not included in the trading book of the institution:
(a) a debt instrument, including a debt security, a loan, an advance and a demand deposit;
(b) a loan commitment given, a financial guarantee given or any other commitment given, irrespective of whether it is revocable or irrevocable, with the exception of undrawn credit facilities that may be cancelled unconditionally at any time and without notice, or that effectively provide for automatic cancellation due to deterioration in the borrower's creditworthiness.
2. For the purposes of point (m) of Article 36(1), the exposure value of a debt instrument shall be its accounting value measured without taking into account any specific credit risk adjustments, additional value adjustments in accordance with Articles 34 and 105, amounts deducted in accordance with point (m) of Article 36(1), other own funds reductions related to the exposure or partial write-offs made by the institution since the last time the exposure was classified as non-performing.
For the purposes of point (m) of Article 36(1), the exposure value of a debt instrument that was purchased at a price lower than the amount owed by the debtor shall include the difference between the purchase price and the amount owed by the debtor.
For the purposes of point (m) of Article 36(1), the exposure value of a loan commitment given, a financial guarantee given or any other commitment given as referred to in point (b) of paragraph 1 of this Article shall be its nominal value, which shall represent the institution's maximum exposure to credit risk without taking account of any funded or unfunded credit protection. The nominal value of a loan commitment given shall be the undrawn amount that the institution has committed to lend and the nominal value of a financial guarantee given shall be the maximum amount the entity could have to pay if the guarantee is called on.
The nominal value referred to in the third subparagraph of this paragraph shall not take into account any specific credit risk adjustment, additional value adjustments in accordance with Articles 34 and 105, amounts deducted in accordance with point (m) of Article 36(1) or other own funds reductions related to the exposure.
3. For the purposes of point (m) of Article 36(1), the following exposures shall be classified as non-performing:
(b) an exposure which is considered to be impaired in accordance with the applicable accounting framework;
(c) an exposure under probation pursuant to paragraph 7, where additional forbearance measures are granted or where the exposure becomes more than 30 days past due;
(d) an exposure in the form of a commitment that, were it drawn down or otherwise used, would likely not be paid back in full without realisation of collateral;
(e) an exposure in form of a financial guarantee that is likely to be called by the guaranteed party, including where the underlying guaranteed exposure meets the criteria to be considered as non-performing.
For the purposes of point (a), where an institution has on-balance-sheet exposures to an obligor that are past due by more than 90 days and that represent more than 20 % of all on-balance-sheet exposures to that obligor, all on- and off-balance-sheet exposures to that obligor shall be considered to be non-performing.
4. Exposures that have not been subject to a forbearance measure shall cease to be classified as non-performing for the purposes of point (m) of Article 36(1) where all the following conditions are met:
(a) the exposure meets the exit criteria applied by the institution for the discontinuation of the classification as impaired in accordance with the applicable accounting framework and of the classification as defaulted in accordance with Article 178;
(b) the situation of the obligor has improved to the extent that the institution is satisfied that full and timely repayment is likely to be made;
(c) the obligor does not have any amount past due by more than 90 days.
5. The classification of a non-performing exposure as non-current asset held for sale in accordance with the applicable accounting framework shall not discontinue its classification as non-performing exposure for the purposes of point (m) of Article 36(1).
(c) there is no past-due amount following the forbearance measures and the institution, on the basis of the analysis of the obligor's financial situation, is satisfied about the likelihood of the full and timely repayment of the exposure.
7. Where a non-performing exposure has ceased to be classified as non-performing pursuant to paragraph 6, such exposure shall be under probation until all the following conditions are met:
(a) at least two years have passed since the date on which the exposure subject to forbearance measures was re-classified as performing;
(b) regular and timely payments have been made during at least half of the period that the exposure would be under probation, leading to the payment of a substantial aggregate amount of principal or interest;
(c) none of the exposures to the obligor is more than 30 days past due.